Forests 2011, 2(4), 961-982; doi:10.3390/f2040961
Review

Reviewing the Science and Implementation of Climate Change Adaptation Measures in European Forestry

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Received: 5 July 2011; in revised form: 29 August 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 11 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Climate Change)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Developing adaptation measures in forestry is an urgent task because the forests regenerated today will have to cope with climate conditions that may drastically change during the life of the trees in the stand. This paper presents a comprehensive review of potential adaptation options in forestry in Europe based on three pillars: a review of the scientific literature, an analysis of current national response strategies, and an expert assessment based on a database compiled in the COST Action ECHOES (Expected Climate Change and Options for European Silviculture). The adaptation measures include responses to both risks and opportunities created by climate change and address all stages of forestry operations. Measures targeted to reduce vulnerability to climate change may either aim to reduce forest sensitivity to adverse climate change impacts or increase adaptive capacity to cope with the changing environmental conditions. Adaptation measures mitigating drought and fire risk such as selection of more drought resistant species and genotypes are crucial. For adaptation to be successful it is of the utmost importance to disseminate the knowledge of suitable adaptation measures to all decision makers from the practice to the policy level. The analysis of the ECHOES database demonstrates that this challenge is well recognized in many European countries. Uncertainty about the full extent of climate change impacts and the suitability of adaptation measures creates a need for monitoring and further research. A better understanding of how to increase adaptive capacity is also needed, as well as regional vulnerability assessments which are crucial for targeting planned adaptation measures.
Keywords: forestry; Europe; climate change; adaptation strategies; forest management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kolström, M.; Lindner, M.; Vilén, T.; Maroschek, M.; Seidl, R.; Lexer, M.J.; Netherer, S.; Kremer, A.; Delzon, S.; Barbati, A.; Marchetti, M.; Corona, P. Reviewing the Science and Implementation of Climate Change Adaptation Measures in European Forestry. Forests 2011, 2, 961-982.

AMA Style

Kolström M, Lindner M, Vilén T, Maroschek M, Seidl R, Lexer MJ, Netherer S, Kremer A, Delzon S, Barbati A, Marchetti M, Corona P. Reviewing the Science and Implementation of Climate Change Adaptation Measures in European Forestry. Forests. 2011; 2(4):961-982.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kolström, Marja; Lindner, Marcus; Vilén, Terhi; Maroschek, Michael; Seidl, Rupert; Lexer, Manfred J.; Netherer, Sigrid; Kremer, Antoine; Delzon, Sylvain; Barbati, Anna; Marchetti, Marco; Corona, Piermaria. 2011. "Reviewing the Science and Implementation of Climate Change Adaptation Measures in European Forestry." Forests 2, no. 4: 961-982.

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