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Materials 2016, 9(7), 549; doi:10.3390/ma9070549

Low Cost Local Contact Opening by Using Polystyrene Spheres Spin-Coating Method for PERC Solar Cells

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Chunghua 51591, Taiwan
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
Electronics and Communication Engineering, Peking University, Wuxi 214125, China
Department of Electrical Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Chunghua 51591, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shoou-Jinn Chang
Received: 29 May 2016 / Revised: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3144 KB, uploaded 8 July 2016]   |  


The passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) concept is one of the most promising technologies for increasing crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency. Instead of using the traditional laser ablation process, this paper demonstrates spin-coated polystyrene spheres (PS) to create local openings on the rear side of PERCs. Effects of PS concentration and post-annealing temperature on PERC performance are investigated. The experimental results show that the PS are randomly distributed on wafers and no PS are joined together at a spin rate of 2000 rpm. The PS can be removed at a temperature of 350 °C, leaving holes on the passivation layers without damaging the wafer surfaces. As compared to the laser opening technique with the same contact fraction, the PS opening technique can yield a higher minority effective lifetime, a higher implied open-circuit voltage, and a slightly higher short-circuit current. Although the fill factor of the PS opening technique is lower owing to non-optimized distribution of the openings, the conversion efficiency of the devices is comparable to that of devices prepared via the laser opening process. View Full-Text
Keywords: passivated emitter and rear cell; local contact opening; polystyrene sphere passivated emitter and rear cell; local contact opening; polystyrene sphere

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Hsu, C.-H.; Yang, C.-H.; Wang, Y.-H.; Huang, C.-W.; Lien, S.-Y.; Kung, C.-Y.; Lou, J.-C. Low Cost Local Contact Opening by Using Polystyrene Spheres Spin-Coating Method for PERC Solar Cells. Materials 2016, 9, 549.

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