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Materials 2016, 9(7), 533; doi:10.3390/ma9070533

The Characterization of Fixation of Ba, Pb, and Cu in Alkali-Activated Fly Ash/Blast Furnace Slag Matrix

Materials Research Centre, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Purkyňova 118, Brno 61200, Czech Republic
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Academic Editor: Claudio Ferone
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 21 June 2016 / Accepted: 24 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geopolymers and Alkali-Activated Materials)
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Abstract

The fixation of heavy metals (Ba, Cu, Pb) in an alkali-activated matrix was investigated. The matrix consisted of fly ash and blast furnace slag (BFS). The mixture of NaOH and Na-silicate was used as alkaline activator. Three analytical techniques were used to describe the fixation of heavy metals—X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). All heavy metals formed insoluble salts after alkaline activation. Ba was fixed as BaSO4, and only this product was crystalline. EDS mapping showed that Ba was cumulated in some regions and formed clusters. Pb was present in the form of Pb(OH)2 and was dispersed throughout the matrix on the edges of BFS grains. Cu was fixed as Cu(OH)2 and also was cumulated in some regions and formed clusters. Cu was present in two different chemical states; apart from Cu(OH)2, a Cu–O bond was also identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: fixation; alkali-activated materials; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; heavy metals fixation; alkali-activated materials; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; heavy metals
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Koplík, J.; Kalina, L.; Másilko, J.; Šoukal, F. The Characterization of Fixation of Ba, Pb, and Cu in Alkali-Activated Fly Ash/Blast Furnace Slag Matrix. Materials 2016, 9, 533.

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