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Materials 2016, 9(6), 477; doi:10.3390/ma9060477

Magnesium Modifies the Structural Features of Enzymatically Mineralized Collagen Gels Affecting the Retraction Capabilities of Human Dermal Fibroblasts Embedded within This 3D System

1
Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, Modena 41125, Italy
2
Laboratory of Tissue Biology and Therapeutic Engineering (LBTI), UMR5305 CNRS/UCBL, Lyon 69366, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arne Berner
Received: 14 May 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8774 KB, uploaded 15 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Mineralized collagen gels have been developed as in vitro models to better understand the mechanisms regulating the calcification process and the behavior of a variety of cell types. The vast majority of data are related to stem cells and to osteoblast-like cells, whereas little information is available for dermal fibroblasts, although these cells have been associated with ectopic calcification and consequently to a number of pathological conditions. Therefore, we developed and characterized an enzymatically mineralized collagen gel in which fibroblasts were encapsulated within the 3D structure. MgCl2 was also added during gel polymerization, given its role as (i) modulator of ectopic calcification; (ii) component of biomaterials used for bone replacement; and (iii) constituent of pathological mineral deposits. Results demonstrate that, in a short time, an enzymatically mineralized collagen gel can be prepared in which mineral deposits and viable cells are homogeneously distributed. MgCl2 is present in mineral deposits and significantly affects collagen fibril assembly and organization. Consequently, cell shape and the ability of fibroblasts to retract collagen gels were modified. The development of three-dimensional (3D) mineralized collagen matrices with both different structural features and mineral composition together with the use of fibroblasts, as a prototype of soft connective tissue mesenchymal cells, may pave new ways for the study of ectopic calcification. View Full-Text
Keywords: collagen type I; alkaline phosphatase; fibroblast; three dimensional gel; morphology; mineralization collagen type I; alkaline phosphatase; fibroblast; three dimensional gel; morphology; mineralization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Boraldi, F.; Bartolomeo, A.; Annovi, G.; Debret, R.; Quaglino, D. Magnesium Modifies the Structural Features of Enzymatically Mineralized Collagen Gels Affecting the Retraction Capabilities of Human Dermal Fibroblasts Embedded within This 3D System. Materials 2016, 9, 477.

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