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Materials 2016, 9(6), 406; doi:10.3390/ma9060406

Graphene–Gold Nanoparticles Hybrid—Synthesis, Functionalization, and Application in a Electrochemical and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Biosensor

1
Institute of Postgraduate Studies Building, Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Institute of Postgraduate Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3
Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
4
Centre for Advanced Materials & Industrial Chemistry (CAMIC), School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne 3001, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlos Lodeiro
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4478 KB, uploaded 24 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Graphene is a single-atom-thick two-dimensional carbon nanosheet with outstanding chemical, electrical, material, optical, and physical properties due to its large surface area, high electron mobility, thermal conductivity, and stability. These extraordinary features of graphene make it a key component for different applications in the biosensing and imaging arena. However, the use of graphene alone is correlated with certain limitations, such as irreversible self-agglomerations, less colloidal stability, poor reliability/repeatability, and non-specificity. The addition of gold nanostructures (AuNS) with graphene produces the graphene–AuNS hybrid nanocomposite which minimizes the limitations as well as providing additional synergistic properties, that is, higher effective surface area, catalytic activity, electrical conductivity, water solubility, and biocompatibility. This review focuses on the fundamental features of graphene, the multidimensional synthesis, and multipurpose applications of graphene–Au nanocomposites. The paper highlights the graphene–gold nanoparticle (AuNP) as the platform substrate for the fabrication of electrochemical and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based biosensors in diverse applications as well as SERS-directed bio-imaging, which is considered as an emerging sector for monitoring stem cell differentiation, and detection and treatment of cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; graphene–gold nanoparticle; electrochemical biosensor; SERS biosensor; bioimaging graphene; graphene–gold nanoparticle; electrochemical biosensor; SERS biosensor; bioimaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Khalil, I.; Julkapli, N.M.; Yehye, W.A.; Basirun, W.J.; Bhargava, S.K. Graphene–Gold Nanoparticles Hybrid—Synthesis, Functionalization, and Application in a Electrochemical and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Biosensor. Materials 2016, 9, 406.

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