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Materials 2016, 9(5), 366; doi:10.3390/ma9050366

Enhancement of Electrochemical Performance of LiMn2O4 Spinel Cathode Material by Synergetic Substitution with Ni and S

1
Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Krakow 30-060, Poland
2
Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Deepak Pant
Received: 29 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Conversion Materials)
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Abstract

Nickel and sulfur doped lithium manganese spinels with a nominal composition of LiMn2−xNixO4–ySy (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.5 and y = 0.01) were synthesized by a xerogel-type sol-gel method followed by subsequent calcinations at 300 and 650 °C in air. The samples were investigated in terms of physicochemical properties using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (EDS-TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements (N2-BET), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and electrical conductivity studies (EC). Electrochemical characteristics of Li/Li+/LiMn2−xNixO4–ySy cells were examined by galvanostatic charge/discharge tests (CELL TEST), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The XRD showed that for samples calcined at 650 °C containing 0.1 and 0.2 mole of Ni single phase materials of Fd-3m group symmetry and nanoparticles size of around 50 nm were obtained. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping confirmed homogenous distribution of nickel and sulfur in the obtained spinel materials. Moreover, it was revealed that the adverse phase transition at around room temperature typical for the stoichiometric spinel was successfully suppressed by Ni and S substitution. Electrochemical results indicated that slight substitution of nickel (x = 0.1) and sulfur (y = 0.01) in the LiMn2O4 enhances the electrochemical performance along with the rate capability and capacity retention. View Full-Text
Keywords: Li-ion battery; cathode material; LiMn2O4 spinel; co-doping; electrochemical performance Li-ion battery; cathode material; LiMn2O4 spinel; co-doping; electrochemical performance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bakierska, M.; Świętosławski, M.; Gajewska, M.; Kowalczyk, A.; Piwowarska, Z.; Chmielarz, L.; Dziembaj, R.; Molenda, M. Enhancement of Electrochemical Performance of LiMn2O4 Spinel Cathode Material by Synergetic Substitution with Ni and S. Materials 2016, 9, 366.

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