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Materials 2016, 9(4), 276; doi:10.3390/ma9040276

In Vitro Testing of Scaffolds for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Meniscus Tissue Engineering—Introducing a New Biocompatibility Scoring System

1
Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Centre Regensburg; Franz Josef Strauss Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
2
Sporthopaedicum Regensburg, Hildegard von Bingen Strasse 1, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: C. Edi Tanase, Michael Nerlich and Arne Berner
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regenerative Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4327 KB, uploaded 7 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

A combination of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and scaffolds seems to be a promising approach for meniscus repair. To facilitate the search for an appropriate scaffold material a reliable and objective in vitro testing system is essential. This paper introduces a new scoring for this purpose and analyzes a hyaluronic acid (HA) gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold in combination with MSCs for tissue engineering of meniscus. The pore quality and interconnectivity of pores of a HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold were analyzed by surface photography and Berliner-Blau-BSA-solution vacuum filling. Further the two scaffold materials were vacuum-filled with human MSCs and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry after 21 days in chondrogenic media to determine cell distribution and cell survival as well as proteoglycan production, collagen type I and II content. The polyurethane scaffold showed better results than the hyaluronic acid gelatin composite scaffold, with signs of central necrosis in the HA gelatin composite scaffolds. The polyurethane scaffold showed good porosity, excellent pore interconnectivity, good cell distribution and cell survival, as well as an extensive content of proteoglycans and collagen type II. The polyurethane scaffold seems to be a promising biomaterial for a mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering approach for meniscal repair. The new score could be applied as a new standard for in vitro scaffold testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: meniscus; polyurethane scaffold; composite scaffold; hyaluronic acid; collagen; gelatin; chondrogenesis; human mesenchymal stem cells; biocompatibility meniscus; polyurethane scaffold; composite scaffold; hyaluronic acid; collagen; gelatin; chondrogenesis; human mesenchymal stem cells; biocompatibility
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Achatz, F.P.; Kujat, R.; Pfeifer, C.G.; Koch, M.; Nerlich, M.; Angele, P.; Zellner, J. In Vitro Testing of Scaffolds for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Meniscus Tissue Engineering—Introducing a New Biocompatibility Scoring System. Materials 2016, 9, 276.

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