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Materials 2016, 9(4), 275; doi:10.3390/ma9040275

Integrated Utilization of Sewage Sludge and Coal Gangue for Cement Clinker Products: Promoting Tricalcium Silicate Formation and Trace Elements Immobilization

1
Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management and Department of Energy and Resource Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
2
Department of Materials Science Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE 100-4, Sweden
3
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jorge de Brito
Received: 6 December 2015 / Revised: 9 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
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Abstract

The present study firstly proposed a method of integrated utilization of sewage sludge (SS) and coal gangue (CG), two waste products, for cement clinker products with the aim of heat recovery and environment protection. The results demonstrated that the incremental amounts of SS and CG addition was favorable for the formation of tricalcium silicate (C3S) during the calcinations, but excess amount of SS addition could cause the impediment effect on C3S formation. Furthermore, it was also observed that the C3S polymorphs showed the transition from rhombohedral to monoclinic structure as SS addition was increased to 15 wt %. During the calcinations, most of trace elements could be immobilized especially Zn and cannot be easily leached out. Given the encouraging results in the present study, the co-process of sewage sludge and coal gangue in the cement kiln can be expected with a higher quality of cement products and minimum pollution to the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: waste; sewage sludge; coal gangue; eco-cement; clinker; trace element waste; sewage sludge; coal gangue; eco-cement; clinker; trace element
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, L.; Seetharaman, S.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Z. Integrated Utilization of Sewage Sludge and Coal Gangue for Cement Clinker Products: Promoting Tricalcium Silicate Formation and Trace Elements Immobilization. Materials 2016, 9, 275.

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