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Materials 2016, 9(3), 179; doi:10.3390/ma9030179

Compositional Design of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of (K, Na)NbO3 and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O3 Based Ceramics Prepared by Different Sintering Routes

1
Physics Department, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos SP 13565-905, Brazil
2
Physics Department, Maringá State University, Av. Colombo, 5790, Maringá PR 87020-900, Brazil
3
Science and Technology Institute, Federal University of Sao Paulo, 330 Talim street—Vila Nair, São Jose dos Campos SP 12231-280, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lorena Pardo
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials)
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Abstract

Lead free piezoelectric materials are being intensively investigated in order to substitute lead based ones, commonly used in many different applications. Among the most promising lead-free materials are those with modified NaNbO3, such as (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O3 (BTNN) families. From a ceramic processing point of view, high density single phase KNN and BTNN ceramics are very difficult to sinter due to the volatility of the alkaline elements, the narrow sintering temperature range and the anomalous grain growth. In this work, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and high-energy ball milling (HEBM), following heat treatments (calcining and sintering), in oxidative (O2) atmosphere have been used to prepare single phase highly densified KNN (“pure” and Cu2+ or Li1+ doped), with theoretical densities ρth > 97% and BTNN ceramics (ρth - 90%), respectively. Using BTTN ceramics with a P4mm perovskite-like structure, we showed that by increasing the NaNbO3 content, the ferroelectric properties change from having a relaxor effect to an almost “normal” ferroelectric character, while the tetragonality and grain size increase and the shear piezoelectric coefficients (k15, g15 and d15) improve. For KNN ceramics, the results reveal that the values for remanent polarization as well as for most of the coercive field are quite similar among all compositions. These facts evidenced that Cu2+ may be incorporated into the A and/or B sites of the perovskite structure, having both hardening and softening effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead-free piezoelectrics; ferroelectrics; piezoelectrics; spark plasma sintering lead-free piezoelectrics; ferroelectrics; piezoelectrics; spark plasma sintering
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Eiras, J.A.; Gerbasi, R.B.Z.; Rosso, J.M.; Silva, D.M.; Cótica, L.F.; Santos, I.A.; Souza, C.A.; Lente, M.H. Compositional Design of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of (K, Na)NbO3 and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O3 Based Ceramics Prepared by Different Sintering Routes. Materials 2016, 9, 179.

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