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Materials 2016, 9(12), 966; doi:10.3390/ma9120966

Neo-Geometric Copper Nanocrystals by Competitive, Dual Surfactant-Mediated Facet Adsorption Controlling Skin Permeation

Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ilaria Fratoddi
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 28 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noble Metal Nanoparticles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1697 KB, uploaded 28 November 2016]   |  


Neogeometric copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have various applications yet its synthesis still proves to be challenging with regards to self-assembly and uniformity control. This study aimed to synthesize shape-specific CuNPs in the biomedical application of ascertaining skin permeation and retention of the CuNPs as a drug delivery system. The approach to the shape design involved the dual control of two surfactants to direct the shape organisation of the nanoparticles (NPs) while an interesting aspect of the study showed the competitive adsorption of the surfactants onto the nanocrystal facets to direct facet growth. The resulting copper nanoparticles were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction spectra analysis (EDS) for elemental and crystalline analysis. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) identified the degradation of the surfactant coat and the synthesis of a novel copper-polymer complex and extensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was conducted to determine the nanoparticle morphology. Epidermal skin tissue served as the model for permeation studies of five idealistic nano-geometries and investigated its application in drug delivery with regards to cellular internalisation and transbarrier transport of the geometric CuNPs. A mechanistic consideration for shape control is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocrystals; nanoparticles; copper; geometric structure; self-assembly; transdermal; drug delivery nanocrystals; nanoparticles; copper; geometric structure; self-assembly; transdermal; drug delivery

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Murugan, K.; Choonara, Y.E.; Kumar, P.; du Toit, L.C.; Pillay, V. Neo-Geometric Copper Nanocrystals by Competitive, Dual Surfactant-Mediated Facet Adsorption Controlling Skin Permeation. Materials 2016, 9, 966.

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