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Materials 2016, 9(11), 918; doi:10.3390/ma9110918

Novel Superdielectric Materials: Aqueous Salt Solution Saturated Fabric

Energy Academic Group, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943, USA
Academic Editor: Christof Schneider
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
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Abstract

The dielectric constants of nylon fabrics saturated with aqueous NaCl solutions, Fabric-Superdielectric Materials (F-SDM), were measured to be >105 even at the shortest discharge times (>0.001 s) for which reliable data could be obtained using the constant current method, thus demonstrating the existence of a third class of SDM. Hence, the present results support the general theoretical SDM hypothesis, which is also supported by earlier experimental work with powder and anodized foil matrices: Any material composed of liquid containing dissolved, mobile ions, confined in an electrically insulating matrix, will have a very high dielectric constant. Five capacitors, each composed of a different number of layers of salt solution saturated nylon fabric, were studied, using a galvanostat operated in constant current mode. Capacitance, dielectric constant, energy density and power density as a function of discharge time, for discharge times from ~100 s to nearly 0.001 s were recorded. The roll-off rate of the first three parameters was found to be nearly identical for all five capacitors tested. The power density increased in all cases with decreasing discharge time, but again the observed frequency response was nearly identical for all five capacitors. Operational limitations found for F-SDM are the same as those for other aqueous solution SDM, particularly a low maximum operating voltage (~2.3 V), and dielectric “constants” that are a function of voltage, decreasing for voltages higher than ~0.8 V. Extrapolations of the present data set suggest F-SDM could be the key to inexpensive, high energy density (>75 J/cm3) capacitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: dielectric; capacitance; energy storage dielectric; capacitance; energy storage
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Phillips, J. Novel Superdielectric Materials: Aqueous Salt Solution Saturated Fabric. Materials 2016, 9, 918.

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