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Materials 2016, 9(10), 821; doi:10.3390/ma9100821

A Review of PMMA Bone Cement and Intra‐Cardiac Embolism

1
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
2
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
3
Division of Cardiology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
4
Bone and Joint Center at Magee‐Women’s Hospital of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
5
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
6
Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213 USA
7
McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
8
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 6 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Abstract

Percutaneous vertebroplasty procedure is of major importance, given the significantly increasing aging population and the higher number of orthopedic procedures related to vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty is a complex technique involving the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the compressed vertebral body for mechanical stabilization of the fracture. Our understanding and ability to modify these mechanisms through alterations in cement material is rapidly evolving. However, the rate of cardiac complications secondary to PMMA injection and subsequent cement leakage has increased with time. The following review considers the main effects of PMMA bone cement on the heart, and the extent of influence of the materials on cardiac embolism. Clinically, cement leakage results in life‐threatening cardiac injury. The convolution of this outcome through an appropriate balance of complex material properties is highlighted via clinical case reports. View Full-Text
Keywords: PMMA; bone cement; cardiac embolism; cement leakage; viscosity PMMA; bone cement; cardiac embolism; cement leakage; viscosity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shridhar, P.; Chen, Y.; Khalil, R.; Plakseychuk, A.; Cho, S.K.; Tillman, B.; Kumta, P.N.; Chun, Y. A Review of PMMA Bone Cement and Intra‐Cardiac Embolism. Materials 2016, 9, 821.

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