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Materials 2016, 9(1), 35; doi:10.3390/ma9010035

Heteroatom Doped-Carbon Nanospheres as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

1
Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Federico Bella
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 30 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 January 2016 / Published: 9 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrode Materials)
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Abstract

Long cycle performance is a crucial requirement in energy storage devices. New formulations and/or improvement of “conventional” materials have been investigated in order to achieve this target. Here we explore the performance of a novel type of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) with three heteroatom co-doped (nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur) and high specific surface area as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The CNSs were obtained from carbonization of highly-crosslinked organo (phosphazene) nanospheres (OPZs) of 300 nm diameter. The OPZs were synthesized via a single and facile step of polycondensation reaction between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and 4,4′-sulphonyldiphenol (BPS). The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed a high heteroatom-doping content in the structure of CNSs while the textural evaluation from the N2 sorption isotherms revealed the presence of micro- and mesopores and a high specific surface area of 875 m2/g. The CNSs anode showed remarkable stability and coulombic efficiency in a long charge–discharge cycling up to 1000 cycles at 1C rate, delivering about 130 mA·h·g−1. This study represents a step toward smart engineering of inexpensive materials with practical applications for energy devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanospheres; lithium batteries; organo phosphazene carbon nanospheres; lithium batteries; organo phosphazene
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pappas, G.S.; Ferrari, S.; Huang, X.; Bhagat, R.; Haddleton, D.M.; Wan, C. Heteroatom Doped-Carbon Nanospheres as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries. Materials 2016, 9, 35.

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