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Materials 2016, 9(1), 16; doi:10.3390/ma9010016

Characterization of a Polyacrylamide Solution Used for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
2
School of Urban, Architecture, and Civil Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maryam Tabrizian
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 19 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
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Abstract

Biopolymers are viewed as effective and eco-friendly agents in soil modification. This study focuses on the wettability analysis of polyacrylamide (PAM) solutions for soil remediation. The contact angle, surface tension, and viscosity of PAM solutions were experimentally evaluated in air- and decane-biopolymer solution systems. Furthermore, a micromodel was used to investigate the pore-scale displacement phenomena during the injection of the PAM solution in decane and or air saturated pores. The contact angle of the PAM solution linearly increases with increasing concentration in air but not in decane. The surface tension between the PAM solution and air decreases at increasing concentration. The viscosity of the PAM solution is highly dependent on the concentration of the solution, shear rate, and temperature. Low flow rate and low concentration result in a low displacement ratio level, which is defined as the volume ratio between the injected and the defended fluids in the pores. The displacement ratio is higher for PAM solutions than distilled water; however, a higher concentration does not necessarily guarantees a higher displacement ratio. Soil remediation could be conducted cost-efficiently at high flow rates but with moderate concentration levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopolymer; polyacrylamide; contact angle; surface tension; micromodel; viscosity; soil remediation biopolymer; polyacrylamide; contact angle; surface tension; micromodel; viscosity; soil remediation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jung, J.; Jang, J.; Ahn, J. Characterization of a Polyacrylamide Solution Used for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils. Materials 2016, 9, 16.

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