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Materials 2015, 8(7), 4363-4388; doi:10.3390/ma8074363

Kaolinite Nanocomposite Platelets Synthesized by Intercalation and Imidization of Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)

1
Chair for Bio-based Materials Engineering, Faculty for Environment and Natural Resources, Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), University of Freiburg, Werthmannstrasse 6, D-79085 Freiburg, Germany
2
Department of Textiles, Ghent University, Technologiepark 907, B-9052 Zwijnaarde, Belgium
3
Topchim N.V., Nijverheidstraat 98, B-2160 Wommelgem, Belgium
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Harold Freeman
Received: 7 June 2015 / Revised: 4 July 2015 / Accepted: 9 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developments in Organic Dyes and Pigments)
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Abstract

A synthesis route is presented for the subsequent intercalation, exfoliation and surface modification of kaolinite (Kln) by an imidization reaction of high-molecular weight poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) or SMA in the presence of ammonium hydroxide. In a first step, the intercalation of ammonolyzed SMA by guest displacement of intercalated dimethylsulfoxide has been proven. In a second step, the imidization of ammonolyzed SMA at 160 °C results in exfoliation of the kaolinite layers and deposition of poly(styrene-co-maleimide) or SMI nanoparticles onto the kaolinite surfaces. Compared with a physical mixture of Kln/SMI, the chemically reacted Kln/SMI provides more efficient exfoliation and hydrogen bonding between the nanoparticles and the kaolinite. The kaolinite nanocomposite particles are synthesized in aqueous dispersion with solid content of 65 wt %. The intercalation and exfoliation are optimized for a concentration ratio of Kln/SMI = 70:30, resulting in maximum intercalation and interlayer distance in combination with highest imide content. After thermal curing at 135 °C, the imidization proceeds towards a maximum conversion of the intermediate amic acid moieties. The changes in O–H stretching and kaolinite lattice vibrations have been illustrated by infrared and FT-Raman spectroscopy, which allow for a good quantification of concentration and imidization effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: kaolinite; guest displacement; poly(styrene-co-maleimide); nanoparticles kaolinite; guest displacement; poly(styrene-co-maleimide); nanoparticles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Samyn, P.; Schoukens, G.; Stanssens, D. Kaolinite Nanocomposite Platelets Synthesized by Intercalation and Imidization of Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride). Materials 2015, 8, 4363-4388.

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