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Materials 2015, 8(7), 3864-3882; doi:10.3390/ma8073864

New Analysis Method Application in Metallographic Images through the Construction of Mosaics Via Speeded Up Robust Features and Scale Invariant Feature Transform

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Energias Renováveis, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará 61.939-140, Brazil
2
Departamento da Indústria–Maracanaú, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará 61.939-140, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Douglas Ivey
Received: 3 May 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 18 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [10289 KB, uploaded 25 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

In many applications in metallography and analysis, many regions need to be considered and not only the current region. In cases where there are analyses with multiple images, the specialist should also evaluate neighboring areas. For example, in metallurgy, welding technology is derived from conventional testing and metallographic analysis. In welding, these tests allow us to know the features of the metal, especially in the Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ); the region most likely for natural metallurgical problems to occur in welding. The expanse of the Heat-Affected Zone exceeds the size of the area observed through a microscope and typically requires multiple images to be mounted on a larger picture surface to allow for the study of the entire heat affected zone. This image stitching process is performed manually and is subject to all the inherent flaws of the human being due to results of fatigue and distraction. The analyzing of grain growth is also necessary in the examination of multiple regions, although not necessarily neighboring regions, but this analysis would be a useful tool to aid a specialist. In areas such as microscopic metallography, which study metallurgical products with the aid of a microscope, the assembly of mosaics is done manually, which consumes a lot of time and is also subject to failures due to human limitations. The mosaic technique is used in the construct of environment or scenes with corresponding characteristics between themselves. Through several small images, and with corresponding characteristics between themselves, a new model is generated in a larger size. This article proposes the use of Digital Image Processing for the automatization of the construction of these mosaics in metallographic images. The use of this proposed method is meant to significantly reduce the time required to build the mosaic and reduce the possibility of failures in assembling the final image; therefore increasing efficiency in obtaining results and expediting the decision making process. Two different methods are proposed: One using the transformed Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), and the second using features extractor Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF). Although slower, the SIFT method is more stable and has a better performance than the SURF method and can be applied to real applications. The best results were obtained using SIFT with Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio = 61.38, Mean squared error = 0.048 and mean-structural-similarity = 0.999, and processing time of 4.91 seconds for mosaic building. The methodology proposed shows be more promissory in aiding specialists during analysis of metallographic images. View Full-Text
Keywords: metallography; mosaic; SIFT; images; SURF metallography; mosaic; SIFT; images; SURF
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Filho, P.P.R.; Moreira, F.D.L.; Xavier, F.G.L.; Gomes, S.L.; Santos, J.C.; Freitas, F.N.C.; Freitas, R.G. New Analysis Method Application in Metallographic Images through the Construction of Mosaics Via Speeded Up Robust Features and Scale Invariant Feature Transform. Materials 2015, 8, 3864-3882.

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