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Materials 2015, 8(4), 1526-1544; doi:10.3390/ma8041526

Covalent Binding of Heparin to Functionalized PET Materials for Improved Haemocompatibility

1
Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
2
Plasma Laboratory, Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
3
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, Maribor 2000, Slovenia
4
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Structural Biology, Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
5
Educell Ltd., Prevale 9, Trzin 1236, Slovenia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aldo R. Boccaccini
Received: 18 December 2014 / Revised: 19 January 2015 / Accepted: 20 March 2015 / Published: 31 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1741 KB, uploaded 31 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

The hemocompatibility of vascular grafts made from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is insufficient due to the rapid adhesion and activation of blood platelets that occur upon incubation with whole blood. PET polymer was treated with NHx radicals created by passing ammonia through gaseous plasma formed by a microwave discharge, which allowed for functionalization with amino groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization using derivatization with 4-chlorobenzaldehyde indicated that approximately 4% of the –NH2 groups were associated with the PET surface after treatment with the gaseous radicals. The functionalized polymers were coated with an ultra-thin layer of heparin and incubated with fresh blood. The free-hemoglobin technique, which is based on the haemolysis of erythrocytes, indicated improved hemocompatibility, which was confirmed by imaging the samples using confocal optical microscopy. A significant decrease in number of adhered platelets was observed on such samples. Proliferation of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvascular endothelial cells was enhanced on treated polymers, especially after a few hours of cell seeding. Thus, the technique represents a promising substitute for wet-chemical modification of PET materials prior to coating with heparin. View Full-Text
Keywords: poly(ethylene terephthalate); vascular graft; biocompatibility; heparin; plasma; functionalization; haemolysis; platelet adhesion; endothelization poly(ethylene terephthalate); vascular graft; biocompatibility; heparin; plasma; functionalization; haemolysis; platelet adhesion; endothelization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kolar, M.; Mozetič, M.; Stana-Kleinschek, K.; Fröhlich, M.; Turk, B.; Vesel, A. Covalent Binding of Heparin to Functionalized PET Materials for Improved Haemocompatibility. Materials 2015, 8, 1526-1544.

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