Ultrasound-Assist Extrusion Methods for the Fabrication of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
AbstractIsotactic polypropylenes (iPP) with different melt flow indexes (MFI) were used to fabricate nanocomposites (NCs) with 10 wt % loadings of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using ultrasound-assisted extrusion methods to determine their effect on the morphology, melt flow, and electrical properties of the NCs. Three different types of iPPs were used with MFIs of 2.5, 34 and 1200 g/10 min. Four different NC fabrication methods based on melt extrusion were used. In the first method melt extrusion fabrication without ultrasound assistance was used. In the second and third methods, an ultrasound probe attached to a hot chamber located at the exit of the die was used to subject the sample to fixed frequency and variable frequency, respectively. The fourth method is similar to the first method, with the difference being that the carbon nanotubes were treated in a fluidized air-bed with an ultrasound probe before being used in the fabrication of the NCs with no ultrasound assistance during extrusion. The samples were characterized by MFI, Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrical surface resistivity, and electric charge. MFI decreases in all cases with addition of MWCNTs with the largest decrease observed for samples with the highest MFI. The surface resistivity, which ranged from 1013 to 105 Ω/sq, and electric charge, were observed to depend on the ultrasound-assisted fabrication method as well as on the melt flow index of the iPP. A relationship between agglomerate size and area ratio with electric charge was found. Several trends in the overall data were identified and are discussed in terms of MFI and the different fabrication methods. View Full-Text
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Ávila-Orta, C.A.; Quiñones-Jurado, Z.V.; Waldo-Mendoza, M.A.; Rivera-Paz, E.A.; Cruz-Delgado, V.J.; Mata-Padilla, J.M.; González-Morones, P.; Ziolo, R.F. Ultrasound-Assist Extrusion Methods for the Fabrication of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes. Materials 2015, 8, 7900-7912.
Ávila-Orta CA, Quiñones-Jurado ZV, Waldo-Mendoza MA, Rivera-Paz EA, Cruz-Delgado VJ, Mata-Padilla JM, González-Morones P, Ziolo RF. Ultrasound-Assist Extrusion Methods for the Fabrication of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes. Materials. 2015; 8(11):7900-7912.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ávila-Orta, Carlos A.; Quiñones-Jurado, Zoe V.; Waldo-Mendoza, Miguel A.; Rivera-Paz, Erika A.; Cruz-Delgado, Víctor J.; Mata-Padilla, José M.; González-Morones, Pablo; Ziolo, Ronald F. 2015. "Ultrasound-Assist Extrusion Methods for the Fabrication of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes." Materials 8, no. 11: 7900-7912.