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Materials 2015, 8(11), 7889-7899; doi:10.3390/ma8115433

A Direct Electric Field-Aided Biomimetic Mineralization System for Inducing the Remineralization of Dentin Collagen Matrix

1
College & Hospital of Stomatology, Anhui Medical University, Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases Research of Anhui Province, Hefei 230032, China
2
Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
3
Department of Stomatology, The Second Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601, China
4
Department of Stomatology, The Hospital of Anhui Province, Hefei 230001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Naozumi Teramoto
Received: 9 September 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
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Abstract

This in vitro study aimed to accelerate the remineralization of a completely demineralized dentine collagen block in order to regenerate the dentinal microstructure of calcified collagen fibrils by a novel electric field-aided biomimetic mineralization system in the absence of non-collagenous proteins. Completely demineralized human dentine slices were prepared using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and treated with guanidine hydrochloride to extract the bound non-collagenous proteins. The completely demineralized dentine collagen blocks were then remineralized in a calcium chloride agarose hydrogel and a sodium hydrogen phosphate and fluoride agarose hydrogel. This process was accelerated by subjecting the hydrogels to electrophoresis at 20 mA for 4 and 12 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the resultant calcification of the dentin collagen matrix. SEM indicated that mineral particles were precipitated on the intertubular dentin collagen matrix; these densely packed crystals mimicked the structure of the original mineralized dentin. However, the dentinal tubules were not occluded by the mineral crystals. XRD and EDX both confirmed that the deposited crystals were fluorinated hydroxyapatite. TEM revealed the existence of intrafibrillar and interfibrillar mineralization of the collagen fibrils. A novel electric field-aided biomimetic mineralization system was successfully developed to remineralize a completely demineralized dentine collagen matrix in the absence of non-collagenous proteins. This study developed an accelerated biomimetic mineralization system which can be a potential protocol for the biomineralization of dentinal defects. View Full-Text
Keywords: dentin; demineralization; collagen matrix; biomimetic mineralization; electric field dentin; demineralization; collagen matrix; biomimetic mineralization; electric field
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, X.-T.; Mei, M.L.; Li, Q.-L.; Cao, C.Y.; Chen, J.-L.; Xia, R.; Zhang, Z.-H.; Chu, C.H. A Direct Electric Field-Aided Biomimetic Mineralization System for Inducing the Remineralization of Dentin Collagen Matrix. Materials 2015, 8, 7889-7899.

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