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Materials 2015, 8(11), 7805-7812; doi:10.3390/ma8115425

Inhibition of Crystal Growth during Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition by Applying BIAS

1
Institut für Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max Wien Platz 1, Jena 07743, Germany
2
Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik, Albert-Einstein-Str. 7, Jena 07745, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter J. King
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Layer Deposition of Functional Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3967 KB, uploaded 18 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

In this study, the influence of direct current (DC) biasing on the growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) layers and their nucleation behavior has been investigated. Titania films were prepared by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using Ti(OiPr)4 as metal organic precursor. Oxygen plasma, provided by remote inductively coupled plasma, was used as an oxygen source. The TiO2 films were deposited with and without DC biasing. A strong dependence of the applied voltage on the formation of crystallites in the TiO2 layer is shown. These crystallites form spherical hillocks on the surface which causes high surface roughness. By applying a higher voltage than the plasma potential no hillock appears on the surface. Based on these results, it seems likely, that ions are responsible for the nucleation and hillock growth. Hence, the hillock formation can be controlled by controlling the ion energy and ion flux. The growth per cycle remains unchanged, whereas the refractive index slightly decreases in the absence of energetic oxygen ions. View Full-Text
Keywords: plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition; titanium dioxide; anatase; plasma parameters; ion energy and nucleation; BIAS plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition; titanium dioxide; anatase; plasma parameters; ion energy and nucleation; BIAS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ratzsch, S.; Kley, E.-B.; Tünnermann, A.; Szeghalmi, A. Inhibition of Crystal Growth during Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition by Applying BIAS. Materials 2015, 8, 7805-7812.

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