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Materials 2014, 7(8), 5643-5663; doi:10.3390/ma7085643

Reduction of Photoluminescence Quenching by Deuteration of Ytterbium-Doped Amorphous Carbon-Based Photonic Materials

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G4, Canada
2
Center for Interdisciplinary Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
3
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan
4
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E4, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2014 / Revised: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 31 July 2014 / Published: 6 August 2014
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Abstract

In situ Yb-doped amorphous carbon thin films were grown on Si substrates at low temperatures (<200 °C) by a simple one-step RF-PEMOCVD system as a potential photonic material for direct integration with Si CMOS back end-of-line processing. Room temperature photoluminescence around 1 µm was observed via direct incorporation of optically active Yb3+ ions from the selected Yb(fod)3 metal-organic compound. The partially fluorinated Yb(fod)3 compound assists the suppression of photoluminescence quenching by substitution of C–H with C–F bonds. A four-fold enhancement of Yb photoluminescence was demonstrated via deuteration of the a-C host. The substrate temperature greatly influences the relative deposition rate of the plasma dissociated metal-organic species, and hence the concentration of the various elements. Yb and F incorporation are promoted at lower substrate temperatures, and suppressed at higher substrate temperatures. O concentration is slightly elevated at higher substrate temperatures. Photoluminescence was limited by the concentration of Yb within the film, the concentration of Yb ions in the +3 state, and the relative amount of quenching due to the various de-excitation pathways associated with the vibrational modes of the host a-C network. The observed wide full-width-at-half-maximum photoluminescence signal is a result of the variety of local bonding environments due to the a-C matrix, and the bonding of the Yb3+ ions to O and/or F ions as observed in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. View Full-Text
Keywords: RF-PEMOCVD; fluorinated ytterbium metal-organic compound; deuterated; hydrogenated; amorphous carbon RF-PEMOCVD; fluorinated ytterbium metal-organic compound; deuterated; hydrogenated; amorphous carbon
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, H.-L.; Leong, K.R.; Teng, I.-J.; Halamicek, M.; Juang, J.-Y.; Jian, S.-R.; Qian, L.; Kherani, N.P. Reduction of Photoluminescence Quenching by Deuteration of Ytterbium-Doped Amorphous Carbon-Based Photonic Materials. Materials 2014, 7, 5643-5663.

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