Materials 2014, 7(3), 2120-2140; doi:10.3390/ma7032120
Article

Selective Interaction of a Cationic Polyfluorene with Model Lipid Membranes: Anionic versus Zwitterionic Lipids

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Received: 2 January 2014; in revised form: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conjugated Polymers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This paper explores the interaction mechanism between the conjugated polyelectrolyte {[9,9-bis(6'-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl]fluorene-phenylene}bromide (HTMA-PFP) and model lipid membranes. The study was carried out using different biophysical techniques, mainly fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy. Results show that despite the preferential interaction of HTMA-PFP with anionic lipids, HTMA-PFP shows affinity for zwitterionic lipids; although the interaction mechanism is different as well as HTMA-PFP’s final membrane location. Whilst the polyelectrolyte is embedded within the lipid bilayer in the anionic membrane, it remains close to the surface, forming aggregates that are sensitive to the physical state of the lipid bilayer in the zwitterionic system. The different interaction mechanism is reflected in the polyelectrolyte fluorescence spectrum, since the maximum shifts to longer wavelengths in the zwitterionic system. The intrinsic fluorescence of HTMA-PFP was used to visualize the interaction between polymer and vesicles via fluorescence microscopy, thanks to its high quantum yield and photostability. This technique allows the selectivity of the polyelectrolyte and higher affinity for anionic membranes to be observed. The results confirmed the appropriateness of using HTMA-PFP as a membrane fluorescent marker and suggest that, given its different behaviour towards anionic and zwitterionic membranes, HTMA-PFP could be used for selective recognition and imaging of bacteria over mammalian cells.
Keywords: polyelectrolyte; polyfluorene; fluorescent membrane marker; liposomes; bioimaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kahveci, Z.; Martínez-Tomé, M.J.; Esquembre, R.; Mallavia, R.; Mateo, C.R. Selective Interaction of a Cationic Polyfluorene with Model Lipid Membranes: Anionic versus Zwitterionic Lipids. Materials 2014, 7, 2120-2140.

AMA Style

Kahveci Z, Martínez-Tomé MJ, Esquembre R, Mallavia R, Mateo CR. Selective Interaction of a Cationic Polyfluorene with Model Lipid Membranes: Anionic versus Zwitterionic Lipids. Materials. 2014; 7(3):2120-2140.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kahveci, Zehra; Martínez-Tomé, María J.; Esquembre, Rocío; Mallavia, Ricardo; Mateo, C. R. 2014. "Selective Interaction of a Cationic Polyfluorene with Model Lipid Membranes: Anionic versus Zwitterionic Lipids." Materials 7, no. 3: 2120-2140.

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