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Materials 2014, 7(3), 2104-2119; doi:10.3390/ma7032104
Article

Cartilage Tissue Engineering with Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Fabricated by Indirect Additive Manufacturing Technology

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Received: 30 September 2013; in revised form: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Abstract: Advanced tissue engineering (TE) technology based on additive manufacturing (AM) can fabricate scaffolds with a three-dimensional (3D) environment suitable for cartilage regeneration. Specifically, AM technology may allow the incorporation of complex architectural features. The present study involves the fabrication of 3D TE scaffolds by an indirect AM approach using silk fibroin (SF). From scanning electron microscopic observations, the presence of micro-pores and interconnected channels within the scaffold could be verified, resulting in a TE scaffold with both micro- and macro-structural features. The intrinsic properties, such as the chemical structure and thermal characteristics of SF, were preserved after the indirect AM manufacturing process. In vitro cell culture within the SF scaffold using porcine articular chondrocytes showed a steady increase in cell numbers up to Day 14. The specific production (per cell basis) of the cartilage-specific extracellular matrix component (collagen Type II) was enhanced with culture time up to 12 weeks, indicating the re-differentiation of chondrocytes within the scaffold. Subcutaneous implantation of the scaffold-chondrocyte constructs in nude mice also confirmed the formation of ectopic cartilage by histological examination and immunostaining.
Keywords: silk fibroin; indirect additive manufacturing technology; scaffold; chondrocytes; cartilage tissue engineering selective laser sintering silk fibroin; indirect additive manufacturing technology; scaffold; chondrocytes; cartilage tissue engineering selective laser sintering
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, C.-H.; Liu, J.M.-J.; Chua, C.-K.; Chou, S.-M.; Shyu, V.B.-H.; Chen, J.-P. Cartilage Tissue Engineering with Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Fabricated by Indirect Additive Manufacturing Technology. Materials 2014, 7, 2104-2119.

AMA Style

Chen C-H, Liu JM-J, Chua C-K, Chou S-M, Shyu VB-H, Chen J-P. Cartilage Tissue Engineering with Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Fabricated by Indirect Additive Manufacturing Technology. Materials. 2014; 7(3):2104-2119.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Chih-Hao; Liu, Jolene M.-J.; Chua, Chee-Kai; Chou, Siaw-Meng; Shyu, Victor B.-H.; Chen, Jyh-Ping. 2014. "Cartilage Tissue Engineering with Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Fabricated by Indirect Additive Manufacturing Technology." Materials 7, no. 3: 2104-2119.


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