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Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni)
Department of Hydrogen Energy, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2012; in revised form: 15 March 2013 / Accepted: 2 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Abstract: LiFePO4 is considered to be one of the most promising cathode materials for lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle (EV) application. However, there are still a number of unsolved issues regarding the influence of Li and Fe-site substitution on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4. This is a review-type article, presenting results of our group, related to the possibility of the chemical modification of phosphoolivine by introduction of cation dopants in Li and Fe sublattices. Along with a synthetic review of previous papers, a large number of new results are included. The possibility of substitution of Li+ by Al3+, Zr4+, W6+ and its influence on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4 was investigated by means of XRD, SEM/EDS, electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The range of solid solution formation in Li1−3xAlxFePO4, Li1−4xZrxFePO4 and Li1−6xWxFePO4 materials was found to be very narrow. Transport properties of the synthesized materials were found to be rather weakly dependent on the chemical composition. The battery performance of selected olivines was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In the case of LiFe1−yMyPO4 (M = Mn, Co and Ni), solid solution formation was observed over a large range of y (0 < y ≤ 1). An increase of electrical conductivity for the substitution level y = 0.25 was observed. Electrons of 3d metals other than iron do not contribute to the electrical properties of LiFe1−yMyPO4, and substitution level y > 0.25 leads to considerably lower values of σ. The activated character of electrical conductivity with a rather weak temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient suggests a small polaron-type conduction mechanism. The electrochemical properties of LiFe1−yMyPO4 strongly depend on the Fe substitution level.
Keywords: Li-ion batteries; LiFePO4; cathode material; Li-site substitution; Fe-site substitution; transport properties; electrochemical properties
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Molenda, J.; Kulka, A.; Milewska, A.; Zając, W.; Świerczek, K. Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni). Materials 2013, 6, 1656-1687.
Molenda J, Kulka A, Milewska A, Zając W, Świerczek K. Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni). Materials. 2013; 6(5):1656-1687.
Molenda, Janina; Kulka, Andrzej; Milewska, Anna; Zając, Wojciech; Świerczek, Konrad. 2013. "Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni)." Materials 6, no. 5: 1656-1687.