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Materials 2013, 6(2), 682-698; doi:10.3390/ma6020682
Article

Utilization of an Ionic Liquid/Urea Mixture as a Physical Coupling Agent for Agarose/Talc Composite Films

1,2
 and
1,*
1 School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 26 January 2013 / Accepted: 20 February 2013 / Published: 22 February 2013
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Abstract

An ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) was blended with urea at 1:1 mole ratio to create a BmimCl/Urea mixture. The agarose/talc composite films containing the BmimCl/Urea mixture were then acquired through a gelation method. The weight ratio of agarose and talc was fixed at 4:1, while the content of BmimCl/Urea was varied from 0 to 10 wt % relative to the overall weight of the composite films. The tensile stress and modulus results showed the optimum BmimCl/Urea content in the composite film lies at 8 wt %. The talc particles are embedded in the agarose matrix and there are no pullouts for the composite films containing BmimCl/Urea as demonstrated by SEM micrographs. The addition of BmimCl/Urea increased the glass transition temperature of the composite films, however, the thermal decomposition temperature decreased drastically. FTIR and FT-Raman spectra indicated the existence of interaction between agarose and talc, which improves their interfacial adhesion. As a conclusion, a BmimCl/Urea mixture can be utilized as a coupling agent for agarose/talc composite films.
Keywords: 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl); polysaccharide; hydrophobic mineral; interfacial adhesion; secondary bonding 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl); polysaccharide; hydrophobic mineral; interfacial adhesion; secondary bonding
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Shamsuri, A.A.; Daik, R. Utilization of an Ionic Liquid/Urea Mixture as a Physical Coupling Agent for Agarose/Talc Composite Films. Materials 2013, 6, 682-698.

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