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Utilization of an Ionic Liquid/Urea Mixture as a Physical Coupling Agent for Agarose/Talc Composite Films
School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2012; in revised form: 26 January 2013 / Accepted: 20 February 2013 / Published: 22 February 2013
Abstract: An ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) was blended with urea at 1:1 mole ratio to create a BmimCl/Urea mixture. The agarose/talc composite films containing the BmimCl/Urea mixture were then acquired through a gelation method. The weight ratio of agarose and talc was fixed at 4:1, while the content of BmimCl/Urea was varied from 0 to 10 wt % relative to the overall weight of the composite films. The tensile stress and modulus results showed the optimum BmimCl/Urea content in the composite film lies at 8 wt %. The talc particles are embedded in the agarose matrix and there are no pullouts for the composite films containing BmimCl/Urea as demonstrated by SEM micrographs. The addition of BmimCl/Urea increased the glass transition temperature of the composite films, however, the thermal decomposition temperature decreased drastically. FTIR and FT-Raman spectra indicated the existence of interaction between agarose and talc, which improves their interfacial adhesion. As a conclusion, a BmimCl/Urea mixture can be utilized as a coupling agent for agarose/talc composite films.
Keywords: 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl); polysaccharide; hydrophobic mineral; interfacial adhesion; secondary bonding
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Shamsuri, A.A.; Daik, R. Utilization of an Ionic Liquid/Urea Mixture as a Physical Coupling Agent for Agarose/Talc Composite Films. Materials 2013, 6, 682-698.
Shamsuri AA, Daik R. Utilization of an Ionic Liquid/Urea Mixture as a Physical Coupling Agent for Agarose/Talc Composite Films. Materials. 2013; 6(2):682-698.
Shamsuri, Ahmad A.; Daik, Rusli. 2013. "Utilization of an Ionic Liquid/Urea Mixture as a Physical Coupling Agent for Agarose/Talc Composite Films." Materials 6, no. 2: 682-698.