Materials 2013, 6(2), 517-534; doi:10.3390/ma6020517
Review

A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

Received: 5 January 2013; in revised form: 23 January 2013 / Accepted: 28 January 2013 / Published: 13 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Colorants)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates), the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.
Keywords: hair dye; N-nitroso compounds (NOC); nitrosamine; p-phenylenediamine (PPD); cancer; risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lewis, D.; Mama, J.; Hawkes, J. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation. Materials 2013, 6, 517-534.

AMA Style

Lewis D, Mama J, Hawkes J. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation. Materials. 2013; 6(2):517-534.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lewis, David; Mama, John; Hawkes, Jamie. 2013. "A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation." Materials 6, no. 2: 517-534.

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