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A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation
Perachem Limited, 1 Sizers Court, Henshaw Lane, Yeadon, Leeds LS19 7DP, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2013; in revised form: 23 January 2013 / Accepted: 28 January 2013 / Published: 13 February 2013
Abstract: This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates), the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.
Keywords: hair dye; N-nitroso compounds (NOC); nitrosamine; p-phenylenediamine (PPD); cancer; risk
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Lewis, D.; Mama, J.; Hawkes, J. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation. Materials 2013, 6, 517-534.
Lewis D, Mama J, Hawkes J. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation. Materials. 2013; 6(2):517-534.
Lewis, David; Mama, John; Hawkes, Jamie. 2013. "A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation." Materials 6, no. 2: 517-534.