Materials 2013, 6(12), 5478-5489; doi:10.3390/ma6125478
Article

Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content

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Received: 28 October 2013; in revised form: 17 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Materials 2013)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C) was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis, capacitance-voltage profiling, as well as electroluminescence imaging. By comparing the aging process to cells that were exposed to heat only, it could be confirmed that moisture plays the key role in the degradation process. We found that cells with higher sodium content suffer from a more pronounced degradation. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate the superposition of an enhancing and a deteriorating mechanism during the aging process. We propose an explanation based on the corrosion of the planar contacts of the solar cell.
Keywords: CIGSe; long-term stability; degradation; damp heat; sodium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Daume, F.; Puttnins, S.; Scheit, C.; Zachmann, H.; Rahm, A.; Braun, A.; Grundmann, M. Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content. Materials 2013, 6, 5478-5489.

AMA Style

Daume F, Puttnins S, Scheit C, Zachmann H, Rahm A, Braun A, Grundmann M. Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content. Materials. 2013; 6(12):5478-5489.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daume, Felix; Puttnins, Stefan; Scheit, Christian; Zachmann, Hendrik; Rahm, Andreas; Braun, Alexander; Grundmann, Marius. 2013. "Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content." Materials 6, no. 12: 5478-5489.

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