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Low and High Field Magnetic Resonance for in Vivo Analysis of Seeds
Leibniz-Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Corrensstraße 3, Gatersleben 06466, Germany
Department of Experimental Physics 5 (Biophysics), University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, Würzburg D-97074, Germany
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 185 Berry Street, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA
Department of Bioengineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2011; in revised form: 4 August 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Abstract: Low field NMR has been successfully used for the evaluation of seed composition and quality, but largely only in crop species. We show here that 1.5T NMR provides a reliable means for analysing the seed lipid fraction present in a wide range of species, where both the seed size and lipid concentration differed by >10 fold. Little use of high field NMR has been made in seed research to date, even though it potentially offers many opportunities for studying seed development, metabolism and storage. Here we demonstrate how 17.5T and 20T NMR can be applied to image seed structure, and analyse lipid and metabolite distribution. We suggest that further technical developments in NMR/MRI will facilitate significant advances in our understanding of seed biology.
Keywords: NMR; MRI; seed quality; crop seed; lipid imaging; sucrose allocation; seed aging; 13C
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Borisjuk, L.; Rolletschek, H.; Fuchs, J.; Melkus, G.; Neuberger, T. Low and High Field Magnetic Resonance for in Vivo Analysis of Seeds. Materials 2011, 4, 1426-1439.
Borisjuk L, Rolletschek H, Fuchs J, Melkus G, Neuberger T. Low and High Field Magnetic Resonance for in Vivo Analysis of Seeds. Materials. 2011; 4(8):1426-1439.
Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy; Fuchs, Johannes; Melkus, Gerd; Neuberger, Thomas. 2011. "Low and High Field Magnetic Resonance for in Vivo Analysis of Seeds." Materials 4, no. 8: 1426-1439.