Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Sol-Gel Entrapped Levonorgestrel Antibodies: Activity and Structural Changes as a Function of Different Polymer Formats
Department of Entomology, Institute of Plant Protection, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2011; in revised form: 14 February 2011 / Accepted: 21 February 2011 / Published: 25 February 2011
Abstract: The paper describes development of a sol-gel based immunoaffinity method for the steroid hormone levonorgestrel (LNG) and the effects of changes in the sol-gel matrix format on the activity of the entrapped antibodies (Abs) and on matrix structure. The best sol-gel format for Ab entrapment was found to be a tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) based matrix at a TMOS:water ratio of 1:8, containing 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG) of MW 0.4 kDa. Addition of higher percentages of PEG or a higher MW PEG did not improve activity. No activity was obtained with a TMOS:water ratio of 1:12, most likely because of the very dense polymer that resulted from these polymerization conditions. Only minor differences in the non-specific binding were obtained with the various formats. TMOS was found to be more effective than tetrakis (2-hydroxyethyl)orthosilicate (THEOS) for entrapment of anti-levonorgestrel (LNG) Abs. However, aging the THEOS-based sol-gel for a few weeks at 4 °C stabilized the entrapped Abs and increased its binding capacity. Confocal fluorescent microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled immunoglobulines (IgGs) entrapped in the sol-gel matrix showed that the entrapped Abs were distributed homogenously within the gel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have shown the diverse structures of the various sol-gel formats and precursors.
Keywords: immunoaffinity purification; sol-gel; antibodies; levonorgestrel; TMOS; THEOS; polyethylene glycol
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Shalev, M.; Miriam, A. Sol-Gel Entrapped Levonorgestrel Antibodies: Activity and Structural Changes as a Function of Different Polymer Formats. Materials 2011, 4, 469-486.
Shalev M, Miriam A. Sol-Gel Entrapped Levonorgestrel Antibodies: Activity and Structural Changes as a Function of Different Polymer Formats. Materials. 2011; 4(3):469-486.
Shalev, Moran; Miriam, Altstein. 2011. "Sol-Gel Entrapped Levonorgestrel Antibodies: Activity and Structural Changes as a Function of Different Polymer Formats." Materials 4, no. 3: 469-486.