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Materials 2011, 4(1), 73-83; doi:10.3390/ma4010073

Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices

3, 1
1 Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Information and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10081, China 2 Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China 3 Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2010 / Revised: 15 December 2010 / Accepted: 24 December 2010 / Published: 29 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Wave of Metamaterials)
Download PDF [673 KB, 30 December 2010; original version 29 December 2010]


Incorporation of active devices/media such as transistors for microwave and gain media for optics may be very attractive for enabling desired low loss and broadband metamaterials. Such metamaterials can even have gain which may very well lead to new and exciting physical phenomena. We investigate microwave composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TL) incorporating ideal gain devices such as constant negative resistance. With realistic lumped element values, we have shown that the negative phase constant of this kind of transmission lines is maintained (i.e., left-handedness kept) while gain can be obtained (negative attenuation constant of transmission line) simultaneously. Possible implementation and challenging issues of the proposed active CRLH-TL are also discussed.
Keywords: active metamaterial; negative resistance device; composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL); dispersion/attenuation relation active metamaterial; negative resistance device; composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL); dispersion/attenuation relation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Si, L.-M.; Jiang, T.; Chang, K.; Chen, T.-C.; Lv, X.; Ran, L.; Xin, H. Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices. Materials 2011, 4, 73-83.

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