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Materials 2010, 3(10), 4710-4745; doi:10.3390/ma3104710
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Phosphorus-based Flame Retardancy Mechanisms—Old Hat or a Starting Point for Future Development?

Received: 13 August 2010 / Revised: 23 August 2010 / Accepted: 9 September 2010 / Published: 30 September 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardants)
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Abstract

Different kinds of additive and reactive flame retardants containing phosphorus are increasingly successful as halogen-free alternatives for various polymeric materials and applications. Phosphorus can act in the condensed phase by enhancing charring, yielding intumescence, or through inorganic glass formation; and in the gas phase through flame inhibition. Occurrence and efficiency depend, not only on the flame retardant itself, but also on its interaction with pyrolysing polymeric material and additives. Flame retardancy is sensitive to modification of the flame retardant, the use of synergists/adjuvants, and changes to the polymeric material. A detailed understanding facilitates the launch of tailored and targeted development.
Keywords: fire retardancy; red phosphorus; phosphate; phosphonate; phosphinate; phosphine oxide; flame inhibition; charring; intumescence fire retardancy; red phosphorus; phosphate; phosphonate; phosphinate; phosphine oxide; flame inhibition; charring; intumescence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Schartel, B. Phosphorus-based Flame Retardancy Mechanisms—Old Hat or a Starting Point for Future Development? Materials 2010, 3, 4710-4745.

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