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Expression of Concern published on 2 September 2016, see Materials 2016, 9(9), 752.

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Materials 2009, 2(4), 1975-2045; doi:10.3390/ma2041975

Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates in Biomedical Engineering, Biology and Medicine

Kudrinskaja sq. 1-155, Moscow 123242, Russia
Received: 27 October 2009 / Revised: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 27 November 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials)
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Abstract

Recent developments in biomineralization have already demonstrated that nanosized particles play an important role in the formation of hard tissues of animals. Namely, the basic inorganic building blocks of bones and teeth of mammals are nanodimensional and nanocrystalline calcium orthophosphates (in the form of apatites) of a biological origin. In mammals, tens to hundreds nanocrystals of a biological apatite were found to be combined into self-assembled structures under the control of various bioorganic matrixes. In addition, the structures of both dental enamel and bones could be mimicked by an oriented aggregation of nanosized calcium orthophosphates, determined by the biomolecules. The application and prospective use of nanodimensional and nanocrystalline calcium orthophosphates for a clinical repair of damaged bones and teeth are also known. For example, a greater viability and a better proliferation of various types of cells were detected on smaller crystals of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, the nanodimensional and nanocrystalline forms of calcium orthophosphates have a great potential to revolutionize the field of hard tissue engineering starting from bone repair and augmentation to the controlled drug delivery devices. This paper reviews current state of knowledge and recent developments of this subject starting from the synthesis and characterization to biomedical and clinical applications. More to the point, this review provides possible directions of future research and development.
Keywords: calcium orthophosphates; apatite; hydroxyapatite; nanocrystals; nanofibers; nanoparticles; nanopowders; nanostructured; nanodimensional; nanosized; biomaterials; bioceramics; biomineralization; tissue engineering; materials chemistry calcium orthophosphates; apatite; hydroxyapatite; nanocrystals; nanofibers; nanoparticles; nanopowders; nanostructured; nanodimensional; nanosized; biomaterials; bioceramics; biomineralization; tissue engineering; materials chemistry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Dorozhkin, S.V. Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates in Biomedical Engineering, Biology and Medicine. Materials 2009, 2, 1975-2045.

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