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A correction was published on 5 November 2009, see Materials 2009, 2(4), 1795.

Materials 2009, 2(4), 1599-1635; doi:10.3390/ma2041599
Review

Progress to a Gallium-Arsenide Deep-Center Laser

Received: 14 September 2009; in revised form: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 20 October 2009 / Published: 22 October 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials)
Download PDF [3781 KB, uploaded 23 October 2009]
Abstract: Although photoluminescence from gallium-arsenide (GaAs) deep-centers was first observed in the 1960s, semiconductor lasers have always utilized conduction-to-valence-band transitions. Here we review recent materials studies leading to the first GaAs deep-center laser. First, we summarize well-known properties: nature of deep-center complexes, Franck-Condon effect, hotoluminescence. Second, we describe our recent work: insensitivity of photoluminescence with heating, striking differences between electroluminescence and photoluminescence, correlation between transitions to deep-states and absence of bandgap-emission. Room-temperature stimulated-emission from GaAs deep-centers was observed at low electrical injection, and could be tuned from the bandgap to half-the-bandgap (900–1,600 nm) by changing the electrical injection. The first GaAs deep-center laser was demonstrated with electrical injection, and exhibited a threshold of less than 27 mA/cm2 in continuous-wave mode at room temperature at the important 1.54 μm fiber-optic wavelength. This small injection for laser action was explained by fast depopulation of the lower state of the optical transition (fast capture of free holes onto deep-centers), which maintains the population inversion. The evidence for laser action included: superlinear L-I curve, quasi-Fermi level separations satisfying Bernard-Duraffourg’s criterion, optical gains larger than known significant losses, clamping of the optical-emission from lossy modes unable to reach laser action, pinning of the population distribution during laser action.
Keywords: laser action; stimulated emission; electroluminescence; hotoluminescence; gallium-arsenide; deep-centers laser action; stimulated emission; electroluminescence; hotoluminescence; gallium-arsenide; deep-centers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, J.L. Progress to a Gallium-Arsenide Deep-Center Laser. Materials 2009, 2, 1599-1635.

AMA Style

Pan JL. Progress to a Gallium-Arsenide Deep-Center Laser. Materials. 2009; 2(4):1599-1635.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pan, Janet L. 2009. "Progress to a Gallium-Arsenide Deep-Center Laser." Materials 2, no. 4: 1599-1635.


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