Materials 2009, 2(1), 221-291; doi:10.3390/ma2010221
Review

Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and Concretes

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Received: 3 February 2009; in revised form: 16 March 2009 / Accepted: 18 March 2009 / Published: 19 March 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
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Abstract: In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. Both phases form after mixing a viscous paste that after being implanted, sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and other phases. As both CDHA and brushite are remarkably biocompartible and bioresorbable (therefore, in vivo they can be replaced with newly forming bone), calcium orthophosphate cements represent a good correction technique for non-weight-bearing bone fractures or defects and appear to be very promising materials for bone grafting applications. Besides, these cements possess an excellent osteoconductivity, molding capabilities and easy manipulation. Furthermore, reinforced cement formulations are available, which in a certain sense might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The concepts established by calcium orthophosphate cement pioneers in the early 1980s were used as a platform to initiate a new generation of bone substitute materials for commercialization. Since then, advances have been made in the composition, performance and manufacturing; several beneficial formulations have already been introduced as a result. Many other compositions are in experimental stages. In this review, an insight into calcium orthophosphate cements and concretes, as excellent biomaterials suitable for both dental and bone grafting application, has been provided.
Keywords: Calcium orthophosphate; cement; concrete; self-setting; hydraulic; injectable; bone grafting; dental; reinforced; calcium deficient hydroxyapatite; brushite; bioceramics; biomaterials; osteoconductivity; bioresorbability; materials science
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dorozhkin, S.V. Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and Concretes. Materials 2009, 2, 221-291.

AMA Style

Dorozhkin SV. Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and Concretes. Materials. 2009; 2(1):221-291.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dorozhkin, Sergey V. 2009. "Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and Concretes." Materials 2, no. 1: 221-291.


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