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Materials 2018, 11(8), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081360

Effect of Annealing Temperature on ECD Grown Hexagonal-Plane Zinc Oxide

Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, 239 Huay Keaw Road, Muang Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
Current address: Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics P.O. Box 70 Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202, Thailand.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Materials for Translational Research)
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Abstract

Zinc oxide (ZnO) offers a great potential in several applications from sensors to Photovoltaic cells thanks to the material’s dependency, to its optical and electrical properties and crystalline structure architypes. Typically, ZnO powder tends to be grown in the form of a wurtzite structure allowing versatility in the phase of material growths; albeit, whereas in this work we introduce an alternative in scalable yet relatively simple 2D hexagonal planed ZnO nanoflakes via the electrochemical deposition of commercially purchased Zn(NO3)2 and KCl salts in an electrochemical process. The resulting grown materials were analyzed and characterized via a series of techniques prior to thermal annealing to increase the grain size and improve the crystal quality. Through observation via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, we have analyzed the statistics of the grown flakes’ hexagonal plane’s size showing a non-monotonal strong dependency of the average flake’s hexagonal flakes’ on the annealing temperature, whereas at 300 °C annealing temperature, average flake size was found to be in the order of 300 μm2. The flakes were further analyzed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to confirm its hexagonal planes and spectroscopy techniques, such as Raman Spectroscopy and photo luminescence were applied to analyze and confirm the ZnO crystal signatures. The grown materials also underwent further characterization to gain insights on the material, electrical, and optical properties and, hence, verify the quality of the material for Photovoltaic cells’ electron collection layer application. The role of KCl in aiding the growth of the less preferable (0001) ZnO is also investigated via various prospects discussed in our work. Our method offers a relatively simple and mass-producible method for synthesizing a high quality 2D form of ZnO that is, otherwise, technically difficult to grow or control. View Full-Text
Keywords: ZnO; hexagonal; electrochemical deposition ZnO; hexagonal; electrochemical deposition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sucharitakul, S.; Panyathip, R.; Choopun, S. Effect of Annealing Temperature on ECD Grown Hexagonal-Plane Zinc Oxide. Materials 2018, 11, 1360.

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