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Materials 2018, 11(6), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060922

Seebeck Coefficient of Thermocouples from Nickel-Coated Carbon Fibers: Theory and Experiment

1
Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 907, 9052 Zwijnaarde, Belgium
2
Department of Textile Chemistry, Politeknik STTT Bandung, Jalan Jakarta 31, Bandung 40272, Indonesia
3
Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, 9052 Zwijnaarde, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers and Their Composite Materials)
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Abstract

Thermocouples made of etched and non-etched nickel-coated carbon yarn (NiCCY) were investigated. Theoretic Seebeck coefficients were compared to experimental results from measurements of generated electric voltage by these thermocouples. The etching process for making thermocouples was performed by immersion of NiCCY in the solution containing a mixture of hydrochloric acid (HCl) (37% of concentration), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in three different concentrations—3%, 6%, and 10%. Thirty minutes of etching to remove Ni from NiCCY was followed by washing and drying. Next, the ability to generate electrical voltage by the thermocouples (being a junction of the etched and the non-etched NiCCY) was measured in different ranges of temperatures, both a cold junction (291.15–293.15 K) and a hot junction (293.15–325.15 K). A formula predicting the Seebeck coefficient of this thermocouple was elaborated, taking into consideration resistance values of the tested samples. It was proven that there is a good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data, especially for the yarns etched with 6% and 10% peroxide (both were mixed with HCl). The electrical resistance of non-fully etched nickel remaining on the carbon fiber surface ( R 1 ) can have a significant effect on the thermocouples’ characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermocouple; Seebeck coefficient; conductive yarn; nickel-coated carbon fiber thermocouple; Seebeck coefficient; conductive yarn; nickel-coated carbon fiber
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Hardianto, H.; De Mey, G.; Ciesielska-Wrόbel, I.; Hertleer, C.; Van Langenhove, L. Seebeck Coefficient of Thermocouples from Nickel-Coated Carbon Fibers: Theory and Experiment. Materials 2018, 11, 922.

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