Next Article in Journal
Preparation and Characterization of Mo Doped in BiVO4 with Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties
Previous Article in Journal
Genetically Engineered Phage Induced Selective H9c2 Cardiomyocytes Patterning in PDMS Microgrooves
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Materials 2017, 10(8), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10080975

Carbon Nanostructure of Kraft Lignin Thermally Treated at 500 to 1000 °C

1
Department of Sustainable Bioproducts, Mississippi State University 1, Starkville, MS 39759, USA
2
USA Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3714 KB, uploaded 21 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Kraft lignin (KL) was thermally treated at 500 to 1000 °C in an inert atmosphere. Carbon nanostructure parameters of thermally treated KL in terms of amorphous carbon fraction, aromaticity, and carbon nanocrystallites lateral size (La), thickness (Lc), and interlayer space (d002) were analyzed quantitatively using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results indicated that increasing temperature reduced amorphous carbon but increased aromaticity in thermally treated KL materials. The Lc value of thermally treated KL materials averaged 0.85 nm and did not change with temperature. The d002 value decreased from 3.56 Å at 500 °C to 3.49 Å at 1000 °C. The La value increased from 0.7 to 1.4 nm as temperature increased from 500 to 1000 °C. A nanostructure model was proposed to describe thermally treated KL under 1000 °C. The thermal stability of heat treated KL increased with temperature rising from 500 to 800 °C. View Full-Text
Keywords: kraft lignin; thermal treatment; nanocrystallites; structural parameters; amorphous carbon kraft lignin; thermal treatment; nanocrystallites; structural parameters; amorphous carbon
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Yan, Q.; Leng, W.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Cai, Z.; Hassan, E.B. Carbon Nanostructure of Kraft Lignin Thermally Treated at 500 to 1000 °C. Materials 2017, 10, 975.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top