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Materials 2017, 10(7), 784; doi:10.3390/ma10070784

Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications

Additives and Chemistry Group, Advanced Fibers, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland
These two authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 13 May 2017 / Revised: 17 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)

Abstract

Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010) in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant. General synthetic strategies to create P-C bonds are briefly discussed. Most popular synthetic strategies used for developing P-C containing phosphorus based flame retardants include Michael addition, Michaelis–Arbuzov, Friedels–Crafts and Grignard reactions. In general, most flame retardant derivatives discussed in this review have been prepared via a one- to two-step synthetic strategy with relatively high yields greater than 80%. Specific examples of P-C containing flame retardants synthesized via suitable synthetic strategy and their applications on various polymer systems are described in detail. Aliphatic phosphorus compounds being liquids or low melting solids are generally applied in polymers via coatings (cellulose) or are incorporated in the bulk of the polymers (epoxy, polyurethanes) during their polymerization as reactive or non-reactive additives. Substituents on the P atoms and the chemistry of the polymer matrix greatly influence the flame retardant behavior of these compounds (condensed phase vs. the gas phase). Recently, aromatic DOPO based phosphinate flame retardants have been developed with relatively higher thermal stabilities (>250 °C). Such compounds have potential as flame retardants for high temperature processable polymers such as polyesters and polyamides. A vast variety of P-C bond containing efficient flame retardants are being developed; however, further work in terms of their economical synthetic methods, detailed impact on mechanical properties and processability, long term durability and their toxicity and environmental impact is much needed for their potential commercial exploitations. View Full-Text
Keywords: P-C bond; substitution; addition; Michaelis-Arbuzov reaction; Michael addition; flame retardant; organophosphorus compounds; transformation; TGA; Cone calorimetry; UL 94 P-C bond; substitution; addition; Michaelis-Arbuzov reaction; Michael addition; flame retardant; organophosphorus compounds; transformation; TGA; Cone calorimetry; UL 94
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wendels, S.; Chavez, T.; Bonnet, M.; Salmeia, K.A.; Gaan, S. Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications. Materials 2017, 10, 784.

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