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Materials 2017, 10(7), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10070777

Effect of Starch Loading on the Thermo-Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polyurethane Composites

1
Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Center for Advanced Materials, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Center for Advanced Materials, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Chemical & Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Energy and Renewable Energies Technology Center, University of Technology, Baghdad 10001, Iraq
6
Program of Chemical Engineering, Taylor’s University-Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Valentina Siracusa
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biobased Polymers for Packaging Applications)
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Abstract

The advancements in material science and technology have made polyurethane (PU) one of the most important renewable polymers. Enhancing the physio-chemical and mechanical properties of PU has become the theme of this and many other studies. One of these enhancements was carried out by adding starch to PU to form new renewable materials called polyurethane-starch composites (PUS). In this study, PUS composites are prepared by adding starch at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt.% to a PU matrix. The mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of PU and PUS composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of PU and PUS fractured surfaces show cracks and agglomeration in PUS at 1.5 wt.% starch. The thermo-mechanical properties of the PUS composites were improved as starch content increased to 1.5 wt.% and declined by more starch loading. Despite this reduction, the mechanical properties were still better than that of neat PU. The mechanical strength increased as starch content increased to 1.5 wt.%. The tensile, flexural, and impact strengths of the PUS composites were found to be 9.62 MPa, 126.04 MPa, and 12.87 × 10−3 J/mm2, respectively, at 1.5 wt.% starch. Thermal studies showed that the thermal stability and crystallization temperature of the PUS composites increased compared to that of PU. The loss modulus curves showed that neat PU crystallizes at 124 °C and at 127 °C for PUS-0.5 wt.% and rises with increasing loading from 0.5 to 2 wt.%. View Full-Text
Keywords: starch; composite; thermal stability; mechanical properties; polyurethane starch; composite; thermal stability; mechanical properties; polyurethane
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Gaaz, T.S.; Sulong, A.B.; Ansari, M.N.M.; Kadhum, A.A.H.; Al-Amiery, A.A.; Nassir, M.H. Effect of Starch Loading on the Thermo-Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polyurethane Composites. Materials 2017, 10, 777.

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