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Materials 2017, 10(6), 613; doi:10.3390/ma10060613

Hydrogen-Induced Delayed Cracking in TRIP-Aided Lean-Alloyed Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steels

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aalto University School of Engineering, P.O. Box 14200, Aalto FI-00076, Finland
2
Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, Oulu 90014, Finland
3
Outokumpu Oyj, P.O. Box 245, FI-00181 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard Thackray
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3431 KB, uploaded 3 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Susceptibility of three lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels to hydrogen-induced delayed cracking was examined, concentrating on internal hydrogen contained in the materials after production operations. The aim was to study the role of strain-induced austenite to martensite transformation in the delayed cracking susceptibility. According to the conducted deep drawing tests and constant load tensile testing, the studied materials seem not to be particularly susceptible to delayed cracking. Delayed cracks were only occasionally initiated in two of the materials at high local stress levels. However, if a delayed crack initiated in a highly stressed location, strain-induced martensite transformation decreased the crack arrest tendency of the austenite phase in a duplex microstructure. According to electron microscopy examination and electron backscattering diffraction analysis, the fracture mode was predominantly cleavage, and cracks propagated along the body-centered cubic (BCC) phases ferrite and α’-martensite. The BCC crystal structure enables fast diffusion of hydrogen to the crack tip area. No delayed cracking was observed in the stainless steel that had high austenite stability. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of α’-martensite increases the hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferritic-austenitic stainless steel; martensite transformation; hydrogen; delayed cracking; deep drawing; constant load tensile testing ferritic-austenitic stainless steel; martensite transformation; hydrogen; delayed cracking; deep drawing; constant load tensile testing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Papula, S.; Sarikka, T.; Anttila, S.; Talonen, J.; Virkkunen, I.; Hänninen, H. Hydrogen-Induced Delayed Cracking in TRIP-Aided Lean-Alloyed Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steels. Materials 2017, 10, 613.

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