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Materials 2017, 10(12), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10121341

Micro-Computed-Tomography-Guided Analysis of In Vitro Structural Modifications in Two Types of 45S5 Bioactive Glass Based Scaffolds

1
HTRG—Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Center of Orthopedics, Traumatology, and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany
2
Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 6, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
3
ATORG—Aschaffenburg Trauma and Orthopedic Research Group, Center for Trauma Surgery, Orthopedics, and Sports Medicine, Klinikum Aschaffenburg-Alzenau, Am Hasenkopf 1, 63739 Aschaffenburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Glasses 2017)
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Abstract

Three-dimensional 45S5 bioactive glass (BG)-based scaffolds are being investigated for bone regeneration. Besides structural properties, controlled time-dependent alteration of scaffold morphology is crucial to achieve optimal scaffold characteristics for successful bone repair. There is no in vitro evidence concerning the dependence between structural characteristics and dissolution behavior of 45S5 BG-based scaffolds of different morphology. In this study, the dissolution behavior of scaffolds fabricated by the foam replica method using polyurethane foam (Group A) and maritime sponge Spongia Agaricina (Group B) as sacrificial templates was analyzed by micro-computed-tomography (µCT). The scaffolds were immersed in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium for 56 days under static cell culture conditions and underwent µCT-analysis initially, and after 7, 14, and 56 days. Group A showed high porosity (91%) and trabecular structure formed by macro-pores (average diameter 692 µm ± 72 µm). Group-B-scaffolds were less porous (51%), revealing an optimal pore size distribution within the window of 110–500 µm pore size diameter, combined with superior mechanical stability. Both groups showed similar structural alteration upon immersion. Surface area and scaffold volume increased whilst density decreased, reflecting initial dissolution followed by hydroxycarbonate-apatite-layer-formation on the scaffold surfaces. In vitro- and/or in vivo-testing of cell-seeded BG-scaffolds used in this study should be performed to evaluate the BG-scaffolds’ time-dependent osteogenic properties in relation to the measured in vitro structural changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive Glass; polyurethane foam; maritime national sponge; µCT; tissue engineering; in vitro; dissolution behavior bioactive Glass; polyurethane foam; maritime national sponge; µCT; tissue engineering; in vitro; dissolution behavior
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Westhauser, F.; Ciraldo, F.; Balasubramanian, P.; Senger, A.-S.; Schmidmaier, G.; Moghaddam, A.; Boccaccini, A.R. Micro-Computed-Tomography-Guided Analysis of In Vitro Structural Modifications in Two Types of 45S5 Bioactive Glass Based Scaffolds. Materials 2017, 10, 1341.

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