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Materials 2017, 10(1), 28; doi:10.3390/ma10010028

Mechanistic Characteristics of Surface Modified Organic Semiconductor g-C3N4 Nanotubes Alloyed with Titania

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar 31900, Perak, Malaysia
2
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad 826004, Jharkhand, India
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Walid Daoud
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhancing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Photocatalysts)
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Abstract

The visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated using the binary composite of alkaline treated g-C3N4 (HT-g-C3N4) deposited over commercial TiO2 (Evonik Degussa GmbH, Essen, Germany). The existence and contribution of both TiO2 and g-C3N4/HT-g-C3N4 in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis-DRS), and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The results showed that the titania in the binary composite exhibited both pure rutile and anatase phases. The morphological analysis indicated that the spongy “morel-like” structure of g-C3N4 turned to nanotube form after alkaline hydrothermal treatment and thereby decreased the specific surface area of HT-g-C3N4. The low surface area of HT-g-C3N4 dominates its promising optical property and effective charge transfer, resulting in a deprived degradation efficiency of BPA two times lower than pure g-C3N4. The binary composite of HT-g-C3N4/TiO2 exhibited excellent degradation efficiency of BPA with 2.16 times higher than the pure HT-g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly due to the promising optical band gap structure with heterojunction interface, favorable specific surface area, and good charge separation. View Full-Text
Keywords: TiO2; g-C3N4; visible light; alkaline hydrothermal; Bisphenol A (BPA) TiO2; g-C3N4; visible light; alkaline hydrothermal; Bisphenol A (BPA)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sim, L.C.; Tan, W.H.; Leong, K.H.; Bashir, M.J.K.; Saravanan, P.; Surib, N.A. Mechanistic Characteristics of Surface Modified Organic Semiconductor g-C3N4 Nanotubes Alloyed with Titania. Materials 2017, 10, 28.

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