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Energies 2016, 9(6), 411; doi:10.3390/en9060411

Simultaneous Optimization of Topology and Component Sizes for Double Planetary Gear Hybrid Powertrains

Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiaolingwei Street, Nanjing 210094, China
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, G041, Walter E. Lay Autolab, 1231 Beal Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Mercorelli
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5361 KB, uploaded 26 May 2016]   |  


Hybrid powertrain technologies are successful in the passenger car market and have been actively developed in recent years. Optimal topology selection, component sizing, and controls are required for competitive hybrid vehicles, as multiple goals must be considered simultaneously: fuel efficiency, emissions, performance, and cost. Most of the previous studies explored these three design dimensions separately. In this paper, two novel frameworks combining these three design dimensions together are presented and compared. One approach is nested optimization which searches through the whole design space exhaustively. The second approach is called enhanced iterative optimization, which executes the topology optimization and component sizing alternately. A case study shows that the later method can converge to the global optimal design generated from the nested optimization, and is much more computationally efficient. In addition, we also address a known issue of optimal designs: their sensitivity to parameters, such as varying vehicle weight, which is a concern especially for the design of hybrid buses. Therefore, the iterative optimization process is applied to design a robust multi-mode hybrid electric bus under different loading scenarios as the final design challenge of this paper. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs); energy management; topology optimization; optimal design methodology hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs); energy management; topology optimization; optimal design methodology

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhuang, W.; Zhang, X.; Peng, H.; Wang, L. Simultaneous Optimization of Topology and Component Sizes for Double Planetary Gear Hybrid Powertrains. Energies 2016, 9, 411.

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