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Energies 2016, 9(6), 400; doi:10.3390/en9060400

The Applicability of Traditional Protection Methods to Lines Emanating from VSC-HVDC Interconnectors and a Novel Protection Principle

1
Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
2
Beijing Electric Power Corporation, Beijing 100075, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gabriele Grandi
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016

Abstract

Voltage source converter (VSC)-based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) interconnectors can realize accurate and fast control of power transmission among AC networks, and provide emergency power support for AC networks. VSC-HVDC interconnectors bring exclusive fault characteristics to AC networks, thus influencing the performance of traditional protections. Since fault characteristics are related to the control schemes of interconnectors, a fault ride-through (FRT) strategy which is applicable to the interconnector operating characteristic of working in four quadrants and capable of eliminating negative-sequence currents under unbalanced fault conditions is proposed first. Then, the additional terms of measured impedances of distance relays caused by fault resistances are derived using a symmetrical component method. Theoretical analysis shows the output currents of interconnectors are controllable after faults, which may cause malfunctions in distance protections installed on lines emanating from interconnectors under the effect of fault resistances. Pilot protection is also inapplicable to lines emanating from interconnectors. Furthermore, a novel pilot protection principle based on the ratio between phase currents and the ratio between negative-sequence currents flowing through both sides is proposed for lines emanating from the interconnectors whose control scheme aims at eliminating negative-sequence currents. The validity of theoretical analysis and the protection principle is verified by PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: VSC-HVDC interconnector; fault ride through (FRT); distance protection; pilot protection; fault resistance VSC-HVDC interconnector; fault ride through (FRT); distance protection; pilot protection; fault resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xue, S.; Yang, J.; Chen, Y.; Wang, C.; Shi, Z.; Cui, M.; Li, B. The Applicability of Traditional Protection Methods to Lines Emanating from VSC-HVDC Interconnectors and a Novel Protection Principle. Energies 2016, 9, 400.

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