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Energies 2016, 9(12), 984; doi:10.3390/en9120984

Spark Ignition Engine Combustion, Performance and Emission Products from Hydrous Ethanol and Its Blends with Gasoline

Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Automotive Components, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Automotive Components Technology, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Elimam Elmahdi University, Kosti 11588, Sudan
Mechanical Engineering Department, Ho Polytechnic, P.O. Box HP 217, Ho 036, Ghana
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wenming Yang
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2266 KB, uploaded 25 November 2016]   |  


This paper reviews the serviceability of hydrous ethanol as a clean, cheap and green renewable substitute fuel for spark ignition engines and discusses the comparative chemical and physical properties of hydrous ethanol and gasoline fuels. The significant differences in the properties of hydrous ethanol and gasoline fuels are sufficient to create a significant change during the combustion phase of engine operation and consequently affect the performance of spark-ignition (SI) engines. The stability of ethanol-gasoline-water blends is also discussed. Furthermore, the effects of hydrous ethanol, and its blends with gasoline fuel on SI engine combustion characteristics, cycle-to-cycle variations, engine performance parameters, and emission characteristics have been highlighted. Higher water solubility in ethanol‑gasoline blends may be obviously useful and suitable; nevertheless, the continuous ability of water to remain soluble in the blend is significantly affected by temperature. Nearly all published engine experimental results showed a significant improvement in combustion characteristics and enhanced engine performance for the use of hydrous ethanol as fuel. Moreover, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions were also significantly decreased. It is also worth pointing out that unburned hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide emissions were also reduced for the use of hydrous ethanol. However, unregulated emissions such as acetaldehyde and formaldehyde were significantly increased. View Full-Text
Keywords: spark ignition engine; hydrous ethanol; combustion; performance; emission spark ignition engine; hydrous ethanol; combustion; performance; emission

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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El-Faroug, M.O.; Yan, F.; Luo, M.; Fiifi Turkson, R. Spark Ignition Engine Combustion, Performance and Emission Products from Hydrous Ethanol and Its Blends with Gasoline. Energies 2016, 9, 984.

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