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Energies 2016, 9(12), 985; doi:10.3390/en9120985

Smart Charging of EVs in Residential Distribution Systems Using the Extended Iterative Method

1
School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA
3
School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Holderbaum
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract

Smart charging of electrical vehicles (EVs) is critical to provide the secure and cost-effective operation for distribution systems. Three model objective functions which are minimization of total supplied power, energy costs and maximization of profits are formulated. The conventional household load is modeled as a ZIP load that consists of constant power, constant current and constant impedance components. The imbalance of distribution system, constraints on nodal voltages and thermal loadings of lines and transformers are all taken into account. Utilizing the radial operation structure of distribution system, an extended iterative method is proposed to greatly reduce the dimensions of optimization variables and thus improve calculation speed. Impacts of the conventional household load model on the simulation results are also investigated. Case studies on three distribution systems with 2, 14, and 141 buses are performed and analyzed. It is found that the linear constrained convex quadratic programming model is applicable at each iteration, when the conventional household load is composed of constant power and constant impedance load. However, it is not applicable when the conventional household load consists of constant current load. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are also validated. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical vehicles (EVs); smart charging; load model; linear constrained convex programming; distribution system electrical vehicles (EVs); smart charging; load model; linear constrained convex programming; distribution system
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Zhang, J.; Cui, M.; Fang, H.; He, Y. Smart Charging of EVs in Residential Distribution Systems Using the Extended Iterative Method. Energies 2016, 9, 985.

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