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Energies 2016, 9(11), 877; doi:10.3390/en9110877

Energy Saving in Water Distribution Network through Pump as Turbine Generators: Economic and Environmental Analysis

Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University of Enna Kore, Cittadella Universitaria, Enna 94100, Italy
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Academic Editor: Hua Li
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving Design for Manufacturing Process, Product, and System)
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Abstract

Complex systems of water distribution networks (WDS) are used to supply water to users. WDSs are systems where a lot of distributed energy is available. Historically, this energy is artificially dissipated by pressure reduction valves (PRVs), thanks to which water utilities manage the pressure level in selected nodes of the network. The present study explores the use of economic hydraulic machines, pumps as turbines (PATs) to produce energy in a small network located in a town close to Palermo (Italy). The main idea is to avoid dissipation in favor of renewable energy production. The proposed study is applied to a WDN typical of the Mediterranean countries, where the users, to collect water during the period of water scarcity conditions, install private tanks. The presence of private tanks deeply modifies the network from its designed condition. In the proposed analysis, the economic benefit of PATs application in water distribution networks has been investigated, accounting for the presence of users’ private tanks. The analysis, carried out by mean of a mathematical model able to dynamically simulate the water distribution network with PATs, shows the advantage of their installation in terms of renewable energy recovery, even though the energy production of PATs is strictly conditioned by their installation position. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy recovery; pump as turbine (PAT); renewable energy; water distribution network; greenhouse gas (GHG) energy recovery; pump as turbine (PAT); renewable energy; water distribution network; greenhouse gas (GHG)
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Marchis, M.; Milici, B.; Volpe, R.; Messineo, A. Energy Saving in Water Distribution Network through Pump as Turbine Generators: Economic and Environmental Analysis. Energies 2016, 9, 877.

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