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Energies 2015, 8(8), 8110-8120; doi:10.3390/en8088110

Space Charge Behavior in Paper Insulation Induced by Copper Sulfide in High-Voltage Direct Current Power Transformers

1
The State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology, College of Electrical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
2
The Department of Material Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Stewart
Received: 13 June 2015 / Revised: 15 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Power and Energy Systems for Transportation Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1399 KB, uploaded 5 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

The main insulation system in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transformer consists of oil-paper insulation. The formation of space charge in insulation paper is crucial for the dielectric strength. Unfortunately, space charge behavior changes because of the corrosive sulfur substance in oil. This paper presents the space charge behavior in insulation paper induced by copper sulfide generated by corrosive sulfur in insulation oil. Thermal aging tests of paper-wrapped copper strip called the pigtail model were conducted at 130 °C in laboratory. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface of copper and paper. Pulse electroacoustic (PEA) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) methods were used to obtain the space charge behavior in paper. Results showed that both maximum and total amount of space charge increased for the insulation paper contaminated by semi-conductor chemical substance copper sulfide. The space charge decay rate of contaminated paper was significantly enhanced after the polarization voltage was removed. The TSC results revealed that copper sulfide increased the trap density and lowered the shallow trap energy levels. These results contributed to charge transportation by de-trapping and trapping processes. This improved charge transportation could be the main reason for the decreased breakdown voltage of paper insulation material. View Full-Text
Keywords: corrosive sulfur; pulse electroacoustic (PEA); stimulated current (TSC); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); copper sulfide; thermal aging; oil-paper; high-voltage direct (HVDC) transformer corrosive sulfur; pulse electroacoustic (PEA); stimulated current (TSC); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); copper sulfide; thermal aging; oil-paper; high-voltage direct (HVDC) transformer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, R.; Hu, E.; Yang, L.; Yuan, Y. Space Charge Behavior in Paper Insulation Induced by Copper Sulfide in High-Voltage Direct Current Power Transformers. Energies 2015, 8, 8110-8120.

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