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Energies 2015, 8(8), 7897-7914; doi:10.3390/en8087897

Lignin-Furfural Based Adhesives

1
Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tariq Al-Shemmeri
Received: 27 May 2015 / Revised: 14 July 2015 / Accepted: 15 July 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy and Biorefining)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [873 KB, uploaded 30 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Lignin recovered from the hot-water extract of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is used in this study to synthesize adhesive blends to replace phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin. Untreated lignin is characterized by lignin content and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The molecular weight distribution of the lignin and the blends are characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The effect of pH (0.3, 0.65 and 1), ex situ furfural, and curing conditions on the tensile properties of adhesive reinforced glass fibers is determined and compared to the reinforcement level of commercially available PF resin. The adhesive blend prepared at pH = 0.65 with no added furfural exhibits the highest tensile properties and meets 90% of the PF tensile strength. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignin; hot-water extraction; sugar maple; lignin adhesive blend; furfural; phenol-formaldehyde (PF) lignin; hot-water extraction; sugar maple; lignin adhesive blend; furfural; phenol-formaldehyde (PF)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dongre, P.; Driscoll, M.; Amidon, T.; Bujanovic, B. Lignin-Furfural Based Adhesives. Energies 2015, 8, 7897-7914.

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