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Energies 2015, 8(5), 4607-4628; doi:10.3390/en8054607

Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

1
Division Electrical Energy and Computer Architectures, Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (ELECTA, KU Leuven), Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, bus 2445, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
2
Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO), Boerentang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Neville R. Watson
Received: 17 February 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Smart Grid)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [785 KB, uploaded 21 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV) generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to these prices. A distributed gradient algorithm automatically defines the locational prices that avoid voltage problems. Using these locational prices results in a minimum cost for the distribution operator to control the voltage. Locational prices can differ between the three phases in unbalanced grids. This is caused by a higher consumption or production in one of the phases compared to the other phases and provides the opportunity for arbitrage, where power is transferred from a phase with a low price to a phase with a high price. The effect of arbitrage is analyzed. The proposed algorithm is applied to an existing three-phase four-wire radial grid. Several simulations with realistic data are performed. View Full-Text
Keywords: active power curtailment; distributed optimization; distribution system;locational marginal pricing; reactive voltage control; real-time pricing active power curtailment; distributed optimization; distribution system;locational marginal pricing; reactive voltage control; real-time pricing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Weckx, S.; D'hulst, R.; Driesen, J. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration. Energies 2015, 8, 4607-4628.

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